rocks Cathedral Bay Maltese Balcony Fort St. Angelo Valletta


The full programme of the ESC2018 General Assembly is available for download here.
The text in the PDF file is easily searchable using standard PDF readers such as Acrobat.
An A4 page format is available here (please note that the 6 parallels session are best viewed across two pages).

Click on the images below to view programme at a glance only.

Sessions list and abstracts

Over 40 sessions have been proposed for this year General Assembly. Below is the list of session. To read the session abstract please click on the name. To search for specific words please use the browser search facility by click ctrl+f.

S01 Marco Mucciarelli Memorial Session: Bringing Scientists and Engineers from Around the World Together to Reduce the Impact of Future Earthquakes
John Cassidy, Geological Survey of Canada,
Maria Rosaria Gallipoli, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, Italy,
Dario Albarello, University of Siena, Italy,
Sebastiano D’Amico, University of Malta, Malta,
Atilla Ansal, Ozyegin University , İstanbul · Department of Civil Engineering,
Sebastiano Foti, Politecnico di Torino,
Angelo Masi, University of Basilicata and ReLUIS Network, 
Francesca Pacor, INGV,
Stefano Parolai, Seismological Research Centre – OGS,
Dario Slejko, Seismological Research Centre – OGS,
Alan Yong, U.S. Geological Survey,
The goal of this Session is to reflect on the many scientific contributions, and to honour the memory of our dear colleague, Dr. Marco Mucciarelli. We do this by following in his footsteps and bringing together earthquake scientists and earthquake engineers from around the world to reflect on what we have accomplished, and where we are going. Marco’s scientific interests and important contributions were numerous, and diverse. We seek contributions to this session that reflect his legacy, including: all aspects of earthquake seismology and earthquake hazards; earthquake site response; seismotectonics; induced seismicity; science communication, and much more. If you would like additional information, or have questions, please feel free to contact any of the co-convenors of this session. Marco Mucciarelli was well-known across Europe and around the world for his scientific talent and passion, for his ability to bring people together, his strong desire to reduce the impact of future earthquakes, and his laughter and his smile. We look forward to a lively scientific session that provides a fitting honour to a great scientist who travelled the world doing cutting-edge science, and who brought so many people together, with the unwavering goal of reducing the impact of future earthquakes, helping to protect people, protect communities, and protect our environment.
S02 -Seismological e-Infrastructures and Their Data and Products Services
Florian Haslinger, ETH Zürich,
Alberto Michelini, INGV Rome & ORFEUS,
Rémy Bossu, EMSC-CSEM,
Stefan Wiemer, ETH,
Andreas Rietbrock, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,
e-infrastructure is a fashionable term used in various contexts, mainly describing the combination of advanced ICT tools and resources with scientific data and products in an effort to enable and support multi- and cross-disciplinary investigation and collaboration.
In that sense, the term accurately describes what seismologists globally are doing since decades: openly sharing data and results, and utilizing the best available computer technology to provide access to that data and to perform advanced calculations to better understand the phenomena related to the physics of the planet. Within the European Plate Observing System EPOS, a coordinated e-infrastructure is being implemented to support European solid Earth science research, and EPOS Seismology constitutes its seismological part ( Building upon ORFEUS, EMSC, and EFEHR to cover seismic waveforms, seismological products, and seismic hazard and risk, and integrating results of recent projects e.g. in computational seismology, EPOS Seismology is putting together a broad portfolio of data and product services within a coordinated framework, fully integrated with the EPOS ICS infrastructure and with the other domains in EPOS. EPOS Seismology will also foster the testing, implementation and integration of new services and data products as they emerge from the scientific community.
In this session, we welcome contributions on all issues related to building and operating e-infrastructures for seismology, with or without connection to EPOS, and on any scale (institutional, national, international), as well as presentations on specific new data or products services made available to the community. Contributions may cover scientific background, operational implementation, data and metadata management, or governance issues.
S03 From site selection to data publication through the Data Life Cycle in Seismology
Damiano Pesaresi, OGS Trieste, Italy,
Javier Quinteros, GEOFON / Deutsches GFZ Potsdam, Germany,
Helle Pedersen, University of Grenoble, France,
Luca Trani, KNMI, Netherlands,
Maggie Hellström, ICOS / Lund University, Sweden,
Developments in seismological instrumentation, telecommunications and power systems has allowed seismologist to exponentially increase the number of seismic stations for high quality as well as cost effective seismological observations. The innovation alongside with the very well established standard data formats and real-time data exchange protocols enabled the scientific community to explore new field of research and have an ever growing treasure of digital seismological data. Thus, operations of seismic networks and data centers, have shifted their focus from the main challenge of acquiring high quality seismic data in standard formats towards enhancing internal data management policies and standard services on the downstream part to enable themselves and users in dealing with the big data challenges. In this session, we expect contributions related, but not limited to:
  • All aspects of seismic station/network installation, operation. This includes site selection; equipment testing and installation; planning and implementing communication paths; development of efficient power systems, etc.
  • Integration of new instruments/observables in the seismological community as well as new applications (e.g. Infrastructural monitoring, Large-N, Deployments in extreme environmental conditions, etc.)
  • Best practices for network operators and data centres producing data.
  • Different approaches towards FAIR principles, including citation and referencing.
  • Data Policies and Curation activities related to data/metadata, including provenance information, data models and metadata standards.
  • Usage of persistent identifiers for datasets, instruments, and other entities.
  • Activities within European initiatives related to Data Management and links to other disciplines
S04 Observations from the sea floor: instrumentation, networks, processing and analysis.
Matthew R. Agius, University of Southampton, UK,
Catherine A. Rychert, University of Southampton, UK,
Nicholas Harmon, University of Southampton, UK,
Christopher J. Bean, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Ireland,
Martin Möllhoff, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Ireland,
Francesco Italiano, INGV Palermo, Italy,
Ocean bottom experiments are on the increase with a growing number of experiments across the planet. In recent years, there have been significant advancements on both the technical and the scientific side, which have increased the overall success of such deployments. On the scientific side, these experiments are giving seismologists, geophysicists, geologists, geochemists and also oceanographers the opportunity to explore new, previously-unreached regions to answer important questions about plate tectonics, offshore seismicity and ocean-seafloor interactions. On the technical side, seafloor stations are becoming more reliable, and record better quality data.

In this session, we welcome contribution for oral and poster presentation about all aspects of Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) and multidisciplinary seafloor observatories, including instrument design, site selection, deployment, quality control, data archiving, processing and results. Contributions about stand-alone, permanent online and real-time underwater stations and early warning systems are also welcome.
S05 Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazard in North-Africa and the Mediterranean regions
Assia Harbi, CRAAG, Bouzareah, Algiers, Algeria,
Mustapha Meghraoui, Institut de Physique du Globe, France
Said Maouche, CRAAG, Bouzareah, Algiers, Algeria
Abdelhakim Ayadi CRAAG, Bouzareah, Algiers, Algeria
Earthquake hazard in Northern Africa and the Mediterranean constitutes a constant threat to human life and property, causing major economic losses and disruption. These regions experienced several devastating earthquakes, some of them even causing tsunami (e.g. in AD, Pompeii 62, Cyrene 262, Alexandria 320, Marmara 358, Crete 365, Sitifis 419, Beirut 551, Tunis 856, Rhodos 1303, Algiers 1365, Fez 1624, Sicily 1693, 1908, Oran 1790, Djidjelli 1856; Liguria 1887, etc.). Generally, most of the western Mediterranean regions including North-Africa were affected by moderate earthquakes (with Mw < 6.5). However, the region remains vulnerable due to the old building stock combined with the shallow character of its seismicity, poor mechanical properties of its soil and local site conditions, and the consequent strength of the ground shaking. Recently, the 1997, 2009 and 2016 earthquake sequences in central Italy (Apennines) were responsible of extensive damage. The destructive earthquakes of Agadir in 1960 (Morocco, Mw 5.9, 15000 people killed), El Asnam in 1980 (Algeria, Mw 7.3, 3000 people killed), Cairo in 1992 (Egypt, Mw 5.8, 541 people killed), Zemmouri in 2003 (Algeria, Mw 6.8, 2278 people killed) and Al Hoceima in 2004 (Morocco, Mw 6.4, 600 people killed) resulted in damage worth 11.5 Billion US$ losses. In this session, we seek presentations on case studies of significant earthquakes of the North African and Mediterranean regions, revised historical and instrumental seismicity, new seismotectonic analysis including fault kinematics, stress distribution and paleoseismic input data. Contributions on seismic hazard models, scenarios, exposure database, vulnerability and risk assessment at regional scale or at specific sites across North Africa and the Mediterranean regions are also welcome.
S06 Recent Strong Earthquakes in the Aegean Sea and Implications for Regional Tectonics
Athanassios Ganas, NOA,
Musavver Didem Cambaz, KOERI,
Ezgi Karasözen
Ioannis Kassaras,
Paraskevi Nomikou,
Philippe Vernant,
Semih Ergintav,
The Aegean Sea is a natural laboratory for studying active tectonics and earthquakes due to the interaction of Eurasia with Nubia plate and the westward motion of Anatolia. All types of faulting are present and deformation of the crust is influenced by deep geodynamic processes. The East and Southeast Aegean Sea is of particular interest as the dominant mode of regional deformation is extension, however active fault kinematics are both normal and strike-slip. This session seeks insights into the source mechanism, aftershock sequence, tectonic setting and geodynamic implications of the recent series of earthquakes in the Aegean: onshore Biga peninsula (Turkey; February 2017; mainshock M5.2) offshore Lesvos (June 2017, Aegean Sea, Greece; M6.3) and offshore Bodrum Kos (July 2017; M6.6). All three mainshocks were well recorded by modern seismic and GNSS networks while the generated surface deformation was imaged by satellite radar missions. In this session we invite papers covering all aspects of these earthquake sequences and their seismotectonic context. Foreseen contributions may include (but not limited to) analyses of seismological data to identify the seismic faults and to refine their geometry and kinematics using inversion techniques, analyses of rupture patterns and source properties of the mainshocks, statistical properties of the aftershock sequences, processing of geodetic data (GNSS, InSAR) to locate the seismic faults and subsequently used in combined inversion studies, offshore campaigns exploring sea-bottom geomorphology and shallow faulting patterns, local tsunami studies, soil-structure interaction studies, studies to retrieve co-seismic vertical land movements from coastal observations etc. We aim for a multi-disciplinary session that will attract workers in all aspects of the seismology and geophysics of the Aegean Anatolia area including users of active fault databases such as the SHARE ESHM13 fault sources database, NOAFaults etc. We also solicit posters from a very broad base such as tectonophysics, geodynamics and marine geology, and especially encourage interdisciplinary contributions.
S07 Seismicity, crustal and upper mantle structure of the African continent.
Dr. Ezekiel Jonathan, CTBTO, Austria,
Dr Rapelang Edward Simon, University of Botswana, Botswana,
Dr Vunganai Midzi, Council for Geoscience, Republic of South Africa,
Dr. Stephen Myers, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA
Istvan Bondar, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences,
The CTBTO-PTS is organizing a series of workshop/training sessions in Africa with the goal of improving seismological analysis practices, including the use of CTBTO-provided tools, the iLoc seismic location method, and the Regional Seismic Travel Time (RSTT) earth model for improved hypocentre accuracy. These sessions emphasize the importance of data sharing, and they have resulted in the determination of event hypocentres and associated arrival-time data that can significantly advance the quality of regional seismic bulletins and improve the accuracy of earth models that are based on regional bulletins. The CTBTO-PTS effort complements other efforts throughout the African continent, which have the goal of gathering continent-wide seismological information, and to refine the seismo-tectonic map of Africa.

This session features efforts to improve assessments of African seismicity and develop models of crustal and upper-mantle structure throughout the African continent. We welcome submissions on seismicity studies with particular emphasis on newly instrumented areas where previous knowledge is sparse. Detailed studies of seismic events of special interest, including aftershock studies are sought. Studies of crustal and upper mantle structure in Africa in the context of improved prediction of seismic travel time, amplitudes, and waveforms are also encouraged.
S08 Seismic Tomography: methodological advances and applications at different scales
Cristina Totaro Messina University, Italy –
Claudia Piromallo – INGV, Italy,
Sergei Lebedev Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies – Dublin – Ireland
Seismic tomography is one of the most effective tools for Earth structure investigation. Several techniques and algorithms have been developed in the last few years with the aim to better characterize the Earth’s interior through higher-resolution imaging, from global to local scale. This session will focus on advances in seismic tomography general theory, applications, and outstanding, debated methodological problems, including proper starting model definition, robustness tests, result representation, and the effects of uncertainty in earthquake locations. Contributions on methodology and applications of tomographic inversion at different scales and with different types of data (local earthquake, teleseisms, ambient noise, surface waves, etc.) are welcome. The session will also provide the stage to present and discuss recent results on the crustal and mantle structure in the Euro-Mediterranean region, as well as other areas worldwide
S09 Seismic studies and multi-disciplinary views on ocean islands, hotspots and mantle plumes
Graça Silveira, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa,
Sergey Lebedev, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Ireland,
Matthew R. Agius, University of Southampton, United Kingdom,
Joana Carvalho, PhD Student, Instituto Dom Luiz,
Ocean Island volcanoes result from magmatism traditionally attributed to mantle plumes, responsible for heat and mass transfer from the deep mantle to the Earth's surface. Yet, plumes remain elusive features, fostering a controversy on whether or not they are the mechanism behind hotspot volcanism.

Seismic images of the subsurface structure, when integrated with other geophysical data and models, provide valuable information on the underlying structure of those geological features as well as on the tectonic processes that shape them.

This session invites oral and poster contributions in which seismic studies, but also multi-disciplinary approaches, are conducted to image the subsurface structure of ocean islands from the crust to the deep mantle. This session is a contribution to the TIDES COST Action ES1401
S10 Advances in seismic anisotropy: studies from crust to core
Paola Baccheschi, INGV, Rome, IT,
Simone Salimbeni, INGV, Bologna, IT,
Guilhem Barruol, IPGP CNRS, FR,
Jaroslava Plomerova, Czech Academy of Science, CZ,
Studies focused on seismic anisotropy at various depths represent an effective approach to improve our understanding processes that govern the inaccessible Earth’ s interior and drive its long-term geological and geodynamic evolution. Moreover, the anisotropy studies provide additional information on both past and present-day deformation of the coupled lithosphere-asthenosphere system and on the state of crustal stress. The availability of a large amount of seismic data recorded recently worldwide, in combination with advanced methods of measuring seismic anisotropy, has lead the scientists to new promising results. They encompass the deformation of the lithosphere associated with active subductions and related volcanism, mantle flow dynamics and plate kinematics, as well as the lithosphere interactions and coupling with the convecting mantle below. In addition, observations of seismic anisotropy in the crust can be used to characterize better the deformation associated with a wide range of tectonic processes. Moreover, further studies are necessary to harmonize different results at variety of scales. The aim of this session is to share recent results on seismic anisotropy to increase our knowledge of the deformation and structures of the solid Earth at a wide range of scales. Therefore, we invite submission of contributions dealing with seismic anisotropy studies focused on the analysis of deformation and structure from the crust down to the inner core by integrating different geological and seismological observations, laboratory experiments, and analog and numerical modelling results.
S11 Advances in Volcano seismology
Luca De Siena, University of Aberdeen, UK,
Jürgen Neuberg, University of Leeds, UK,
Volcanic processes such as magma intrusions and dike propagation, faulting, landslides, explosive eruptive activity and hydrothermal fluid circulation produce a diverse range of geophysical signatures, including caldera deformation, variations in tilt of the volcanic edifice and changes in gravity and electric conductivity. Seismic data, however, are the primary source of information on volcano dynamics and provide a direct link to assess volcanic activity levels. In combination with interdisciplinary observations, the deployment of extensive seismic networks has significantly improved our ability to forecast and assess volcanic hazards, from the first signs of unrest to long-lived eruptions.

The aim of this session is to explore the role of seismology in a wider volcanological context, and
  • to discuss major advances in instrument and network design leading to improvements in both spatial coverage and temporal resolution of seismic observations;
  • to explore the seismological insight in the internal structure and physical processes of volcanic systems through new processing tools, physical models and interpretations of volcanic seismic data;
  • to exhibit the variety of seismic sources a volcano can have, revealing differences and similarities to tectonic seismic sources.
S12 Seismological and Structural Studies in Polar Regions and the Cryosphere
Myrto Pirli, Norway,
Sergei Lebedev, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Ireland,
Peter Voss, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland – GEUS, Denmark,
Fabian Walter, ETH Zürich, Switzerland,
The Polar Regions attract increased attention and have special significance as regions strained the most by the consequences of climate change. The unanswered questions over the regions’ tectonic evolution, the implications of their natural resources and the UN Law of the Sea Treaty stimulate further interest in them. Some of the seismological challenges in the Polar Regions are the origin and properties of intraplate seismicity, the mechanisms of ultra-slow sea-floor spreading, the role of glacial rebound in seismicity triggering and the exploration for oil and gas. As an exploration tool for the Earth’s structure, both in depth and on the surface, seismology nowadays contributes to studies of paleoclimate and ice structure. Seismology has also proven itself as an effective tool to study glacier and ice-sheet dynamics, and to monitor glacier-related natural hazards, the rich cryo-seismological wavefield providing unrivalled insights into crevassing, subglacial water flow, basal motion, iceberg drift and iceberg calving.

We invite submissions on seismology and Earth structure in the Polar regions and in glaciated environments with temperate climates. All seismological topics are welcome, including monitoring and analysis of seismicity (tectonic and cryogenic) and related hazardous, near-surface processes, studies of recent larger seismic events, seismotectonics and seismic imaging of crustal and mantle structure. We welcome contributions both on recent research results and their interpretation, and on experiments under the special conditions of the polar environment and mountain glaciers.
S13 Geophysical imaging of fault zones at different scales: challenges and perspectives.
Fabio Villani, INGV,
Vincenzo Sapia, INGV,
Stèphanie Gautier, Université Montpellier, Faculté Des Sciences, France,
The geophysical investigation of fault zones is of primary importance for extending at depth the knowledge provided by surface structural studies aimed at characterizing their internal architecture and understanding the processes that drive fault growth and interaction. In particular, brittle fault zones in active tectonic settings play a major role in the evolution of the lithosphere, since they accommodate a large proportion of deformation, even far form plate boundaries. Earthquake faulting is a compound structural process, so that gaining sights into the properties of fault zones is crucial to understand their control on earthquake nucleation and on the complexity of coseismic rupture propagation and arrest. Moreover, fault zones represent preferential pathways for fluid flow at different scales, and display dynamic spatio-temporal behaviour, particularly in the different phases of the seismic cycle. From a near-surface geophysical perspective, in urbanized settings the characterization of shallow fault zones is crucial for a better assessment of surface faulting hazard and site effects due to ground motion amplification. In offshore settings, deep geophysical prospecting is the key for the exploration of inaccessible fault zones, such as in the case of mega-thrust along subduction margins, or tectonically active submarine escarpments on spreading centres and back-arc basins. The aim of this session is to collect the most recent results of geophysical imaging of fault zones supporting geological characterization of tectonically active areas, including also discussions on challenges and perspectives. In particular, we encourage to submit works dealing with multi-disciplinary high-resolution methods (among the others, seismic and electrical tomography, reflection profiling, full-waveform inversion, electromagnetic and gravimetric methods) together with new developments in data processing, imaging techniques and field acquisition layouts. Case studies from active tectonic settings and areas recently hit by earthquakes are welcome.
S14 Fault2SHA: so what?
Laura Peruzza – OGS Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Trieste (Italy)
Oona Scotti – IRSN, Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Paris (France)
Bruno Pace – DiSPUTer, Università “G. d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara, Chieti (Italy)
Francesco Visini – INGV Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, L’Aquila (Italy)
Thomas Chartier – IRSN & Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris, Paris (France)

Accounting for faults in PSHA studies is a crucial challenge as it involves a wide spectrum of subjects of a varied community that goes from earthquake field geologists to seismic hazard and risk practitioners, earthquake source dynamic rupture modelers, statistical seismologists and geodynamic experts. The Fault2SHA Working Group has been formally approved by ESC at the 35th General Assembly, Sept 2016, and it acts to provide a discussion forum on how to transform basic geological information into parameters for seismogenic sources useful for seismic hazard assessments. The first annual report of 2016-17 activities is available on the new WG website at
In Malta, at the 2018 ESC General Assembly, the aim is to bring together researchers and PSHA practitioners to discuss field data collection issues and challenges for their integration into PSHA. The Fault2SHA WG solicits contributions such as:
I) field data issues – methodological approaches to identify, model and quantify the seismic potential of faults to be used in seismic hazard analysis, geological/geodetical constraints to estimate present-day slip rates, paleoseismological constraints to estimate the degree of periodicity of major events;
2) data vs hypotheses issues concerning possible fault-to-fault rupture scenarios based on geometrical complexities or on physics-based approaches: case-studies illustrating the evolution of knowledge of a faults system, and the role played by the latest earthquakes in confirming/changing the previous hypotheses;
3) data vs hypotheses issues concerning the earthquake recurrence based on time-dependent processes, hazard assessments that illustrate the capabilities and critical aspects of faults models in representing real, observed shakings
We encourage, in particular, presentations focused on specific field laboratories: the Betics (E) and Central Apennines (I) are already onboard with invited/solicited talks.
During the session an overview of the past/ongoing initiatives will be presented as well.
Finally, we are planning a special hands-on presentation of some tools used for parameterizing fault activity rates. Fill in the form at and follow the most recent POST if you are interested in such initiative

S15 Current practice, critical aspects and new challenges in PSHA at local, national and regional scale
Aybige Akinci, INGV Rome,
Dario Albarello, University of Siena,
Fabrice Cotton, GFZ Potsdam,
Stefan Wiemer, ETH Zurich,
In recent years, great efforts have been devoted to improve PSHA standards and understanding their implications for seismic hazard and risk assessments. Increasing number of world-wide damaging earthquakes, exponential growth of data and knowledge, together with new engineering demands and needs for the operational safety for society motivated the research of alternative and more effective approaches incorporating new concepts and tools.

We welcome presentations that explore and introduce new criterions, aspects and approaches advancing standards in the traditional PSHA, and/or contributions that help reducing aleatory/epistemic uncertainties in the seismic hazard and allow testing effectiveness of available estimates. Topics of main interest will be:
  • Definition and determination of earthquake sources and activity rates, including the assessment of earthquake datasets, calibration of magnitude scales, identification of faults and seismogenic sources, implementation of strain and simulation-based earthquake rupture forecasts;
  • estimation of strong ground motion and its uncertainty; Ground Motion Predictive Equations and alternative approaches based on based deterministic and stochastic simulations. The assessment of site effects, the consideration of new parameters to characterise the intensity of ground shaking;
  • validation of seismic hazard models, statistical tests of activity rates, calibration of ground motion models; Model building process and related uncertainties, formal elicitation of expert opinion, comprehensive treatment of aleatory/epistemic uncertainties, development of innovative testing procedures.
  • Case studies of SHA from Europe and around the globe (contributions related to the ongoing update of the Harmonised European Seismic Hazard model and the emerging EPOS infrastructure on hazard and risk).
S16 Advances in models, observations and verification towards Operational Earthquake Forecasting
Antonella Peresan, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale Centro Ricerche Sismologiche OGS-CRS,
Dimitar Ouzounov, Center of Excellence in Earth Systems Modeling & Observations, Chapman University, Orange, CA, USA,
Vladimir G Kossobokov, Institute of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Mathematical,Geophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences. Moscow, Russia,
Angelo De Santis, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Roma , Italy,
Gerassimos Papadopoulos, Institute of Geodynamics National Observatory of Athens, Greece
Sergey Pulinets, Space Geophysics Department, Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia,
The observed seismic dynamics before and after many major earthquakes demonstrated common features of predictability and diverse behavior. Significant steps have been made towards assessing earthquake space-time correlations, clustering, and the emergence of seismicity patterns, showing the potential for reproducible and testable earthquake forecasting. But seismicity is only one manifestation of Earth’s complex dynamics in advance of catastrophic earthquakes. Besides identified patterns and probabilistic models of earthquake occurrence, many newly available data collected on a global scale provide new opportunities for systematic analysis and model testing. A variety of physical observables, ranging from ground-related deformation patterns (GPS, SAR, etc.) to pre-earthquake changes (be they geochemical, electromagnetic, or thermodynamic), may be related to stress variations in the lithosphere prior to a large earthquake.

With this session, we intend to better understand the feasibility and practical relevance of earthquake forecast/prediction methods. The following theoretical and practical issues will be addressed:
  • Systematic analysis, physical interpretation and modeling of pre-earthquake processes;
  • Model validation and statistical assessment of the proposed physical-based precursors;
  • Statistical methods and problems in earthquake forecast validation;
  • Input data analysis and requirements for real-time model testing;
  • Dissemination and use of earthquake forecasting information;
  • Approaches for the evaluation of earthquake forecasting methods and case studies;
  • Possible extension to seismic risk and loss forecasting.
Presentations addressing the issue of time-dependent seismic hazard assessment, based on the space-time characterization of impending earthquakes, are also welcomed. We emphasize that we are interested in both probabilistic and deterministic approaches to these problems.
S17 Internet Macroseismology
Valerio de Rubeis, INGV, Rome, Italy,
Thomas Lecocq, ROB, Bruxelles, Belgium,
Ina Cecić, ARSO, Ljubljana, Slovenia,
With several years of experience of collecting internet macroseismic data behind us, we can more easily identify existing problems, present already solved ones and explore the possibilities to solve the open questions. This applies to the whole range of topics, starting from database issues, data formats, questionnaires and thumbnails, all the way to multi-hazard approach. The aim of this session is to explore ways in which the macroseismic datasets from different countries and institutions could possibly be merged, and to what extent these data should be harmonized, especially for earthquakes affecting different countries, but also with respect to building comprehensive European macroseismic catalogues, e.g. for use in seismic hazard assessment. Presentations of national or institutional methodologies, objectives, collecting systems, studies of merging different datasets etc. are welcome.
S18 Towards a faster and more accurate assessment of the impact of an earthquake.
Matteo Picozzi, University of Naples Federico II,
John F. Clinton, SED, ETH Zürich,
Stefano Parolai, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale – OGS,
Aldo Zollo, University of Naples Federico II,
Over the last few years, scientific and technological advances in real-time seismology and earthquake early warning mean we are approaching an era when assessments of the impact of an earthquake can be available as an earthquake is progressing and grow increasingly reliable with increasing time as predictive estimates become constrained by observed data. Recent efforts that can critically improve real-time assessment of the impact include advanced signal processing that discriminates pick types; tracking evolving finite ruptures using peak amplitude patterns or waveform simulation techniques; the selection of appropriate GMPEs and fragility curves for rapid damage assessment; and the integration of non-traditional monitoring datasets (cheap acceleration sensors, GPS) and felt reports as they become available. With this session, we aim to provide a state-of-the-art overview of the field of earthquake early warning and rapid response systems. In particular, we intend to create a forum to share experiences, techniques, perspectives, to identify areas for improvements, and to move towards an international agreement on standards, instrumentation, and methods for new real-time seismic risk mitigation systems. We welcome contributions on early warning and rapid response development, both in methodological as well as application level, and particularly encourage submissions dealing with real-time seismic risk mitigation applications and loss-based early warning.
S19 Physics of Earthquakes and Seismic sources
Efthimios Sokos, University of Patras, Greece,
Christos Evangelidis, National Observatory of Athens, Greece,
Václav Vavryčuk, Institute of Geophysics, Czech Republic,
Jiří Zahradník, Charles University, Czech Republic,
Earthquake physics attempts to answer fundamental questions in seismology as how do earthquakes prepare, how does seismic rupture start, propagate and stop, what is the role of the long-term and short-term processes in the Earth, what is the role of fluids in earthquake triggering, and what is the link between fault dynamics, energy, friction and other physical parameters of the focal zone. Recent advances in seismological, geodetic and satellite observations provide a vast amount of data, which, linked with advances in computational methods, have significantly expanded our ability to study earthquake related phenomena on various scales. Nevertheless, despite the achieved progress, earthquake source processes are not often sufficiently understood and in some cases the results are controversial, calling for increased efforts towards source studies.

The goal of this session is to attract scientific contributions related to broad aspects of methodological as well as data-oriented earthquake source studies. Submissions focusing on earthquake source parameters, focal mechanisms and their inversion for stress, non-double-couple components of moment tensors, source slip inversions, finite fault inversions, back‐projection techniques and their applications, resolution limits and related uncertainties are particularly welcome as well as physics‐based simulations. In addition, the session is suitable for studies of source imaging as well as frequency‐dependent source parameters, imaging of dynamic rupture, characterization of source complexity, statistical properties of earthquake source parameters as scaling laws etc.
S20 Earthquake source mechanisms and triggering processes
S. Ide, University of Tokyo,
T. Dahm, GFZ,
B. Dost, KNMI,
Earthquakes are triggered by various natural and artificial processes. Especially, human-induced earthquakes are brought into the focus of public attention, the most prominent example is the dramatic increase of the number of earthquakes in the central and eastern US. However, the topic gains attention also in Europe, e.g. seismicity induced during geothermal exploration, gas field depletion or reservoir impoundment. Similar swarm activity has been reported for natural earthquakes and is often considered to be related to underground fluid movement and slow deformation in tectonic fault systems, some of which supposedly reflect preparation stages before very large earthquakes.

Microseismic monitoring emerged as important tool for the general understanding of hidden background conditions, such as location of fractured reservoirs, faults and fluid flow paths. It is not yet clear if induced earthquakes should be treated the same or differently than natural events. Also, the relationship between fluid injection or extraction and resulting seismicity is still poorly understood. Although the discrimination between natural, triggered and induced earthquakes might be required for legal purposes in the future, it is still challenging and no clear rules or scientific methods are established. The aim of this session is to advance the understanding of the relationship between characteristics of earthquake sources and background triggering processes, including industrial operations, fluid flow and volcanic or tectonic movements. We welcome presentations on the development and application of analysis methods to investigate the differences between ordinary, naturally triggered and artificially induced seismicity as well as insightful theoretical and experimental works.
S21 Physics of Earthquake Preparation Process: From Laboratory Experiments to Earthquake Forecast (dedicated to the memory of Prof. Hans Berckhemer, Prof. Victor Kuksenko and Dr. George Purcaru)
Alexey Zavyalov, Institute of Physics of the Earth RAS, Moscow, Russia,
Eleftheria Papadimitriou, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece,
Georgios Bozionelos, University of Malta,
The skepticism connected with earthquake forecasting, both deterministic and probabilistic, is related with the complexity of earthquake generation process that put limitations in scientific knowledge and incomplete insights. These latter prevent a reliable estimation of the occurrence place, time and magnitude of an ensuing earthquake. Meanwhile, it is known that the earthquake process is not momentary, but on the contrary there are several gradually evolving stages that take place in time and space. Before the main rupture occurs, the destruction process is going through a number of levels (stages), starting with the micro–scale and ending on macro–scale, including earthquake focal area. In this session, we invite researchers to discuss the results and directions for further studies on the physics of the seismic process – from experiments in laboratory conditions, to rock bursts in mines and seismically active regions during the preparation phase of strong earthquakes.

Special emphasis will be given to quantitative physical models of the seismic process at different scales, observations on earthquake triggering by other earthquakes or nearby faults, and synchronization between nearby faults with positive stress coupling, fault system interactions controlling earthquake occurrence, the connection of smaller magnitude seismicity with stress changes as expressed through the Rate/State model, calculation of stress changes from changes in earthquake occurrence. Modeling and simulations across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales provide a better understanding of the source processes and interactions, and advance predictive capabilities. This session will be devoted to the memory of outstanding scientists in the field of rock physics and physics of seismic process – Prof. Hans Berkhemer (Germany), Prof. Victor Kuksenko (Russia), Dr. George Purcaru (Romania/Germany).
S22 Advances in understanding earthquakes in regions of distributed deformation: from field studies to seismic hazard assessment
Susana Custódio, IDL, Univ. of Lisbon, Portugal,
Michele Carafa, INGV, Italy,
Marta Neres, IDL, IPMA, Portugal,
Laurentiu Danciu, ETH, Switzerland,
Oliver Heidbach, GFZ, Potsdam,
Pierre Arroucau, DIAS, Ireland / EDF, France,
The theory of plate tectonics explains the occurrence and recurrence time of strong earthquakes along discrete boundaries. However, large regions of spread deformation are observed in nature, both around plate boundaries and in orogens. Furthermore, seismicity in regions with very low strain rates show that the interiors of plates also deform. Earthquakes in regions of distributed and low deformation can also reach high magnitudes, but in contrast to plate boundaries it is not clear if cyclic behavior applies and if yes how recurrence times can be estimated with the classical approaches and concepts. The significant increase of high-density data collected in past years resulted in high-quality data sets of hypocentral distribution, focal mechanisms, crustal stress pattern and GPS surface deformation. These can be used for an integrated approach to understand the earthquake occurrence away from the well-known plate boundaries. Fundamental questions that have to be addressed concerning the recognition of seismogenic faults and the occurrence of earthquakes in these regions include: Can we identify faults that take up deformation in regions of distributed deformation? Can the tectonic and possibly seismogenic signal be singled out for each fault? Can we relate the characteristics of fault networks to earthquake potential, and subsequently to seismic hazard assessment? What is the role of fault interaction in long-term seismicity forecasts? How can the time-space variability of earthquakes in these regions be modeled? How can we integrate GPS data and physics-based models in the future seismic hazard assessment? In this session we welcome contributions that improve our understanding of seismogenesis and seismic hazard in regions of distributed and low deformation. We welcome theoretical, observational, and numerical contributions from a broad range of disciplines, including field geology, structural geology, seismology, geodesy, rheology, crustal stress, geodynamics and seismic hazard assessment.
S23 Experimental markers and physical modelling of geodynamic processes
Barbara Orecchio, Università degli Studi di Messina,
Anna Maria Marotta, Università degli Studi di Milano,
Experimental data and observations such as GPS measurements of crustal motions, earthquake locations and focal mechanisms, fault activity and local geology, are commonly used to infer space-time distributions of tectonic stress and strain in the Earth’s lithosphere. These distributions lead to identify geodynamic processes acting as sources of the observed deformation patterns. Different methods and procedures are adopted for solving this inverse problem, such as the Finite Element Modelling of the dynamics of the crust-mantle system under assigned tectonic boundary conditions. This Session aims at opening a wide discussion on the most recent developments of this geodynamic theme, stimulating the presentation of contributions concerning the different aspects of the problem, from collection of geophysical and geological experimental data to physical modelling of lithospheric deformation processes. Analyses of data and processes carried out in the Euro-Mediterranean region are primarily expected (given also the context of the Assembly) but contributions focusing on different regions are also strongly welcome.
S24 Physical and Statistical models for foreshocks, aftershocks and multiplets at different scales, from laboratory experiments to real-scale observations.
Stefania Gentili, INOGS, Centro Ricerche Sismologiche, Italy,
Rita Di Giovambattista, INGV, Italy,
Filippos Vallianatos, Technological Educational Institute of Crete,
Seismicity can occur with great spatio-temporal variability, dominated by background activity or several kinds of earthquake clusters, from swarm-like to burst-like types. In many regions where complex fault systems exist, clusters are characterized by multiple mainshock sequences, with the mainshock followed by large aftershocks. Foreshock occurrence is still poorly understood: some events are preceded by significant foreshock activity, others occur suddenly. In this session, we invite researchers to present the latest results on physical and statistical models for foreshocks, aftershocks and multiplets, including experimental results based on laboratory experiments on rock fracture and friction, along with theoretical and numerical models, methods for seismic hazard analysis related to the complex patterns of seismicity and their statistical properties. A persistent behaviour of the seismicity and cluster properties has been observed in some seismotectonic areas. Topics to assess the variation of seismicity style with a characterization of geological/tectonic conditions are strongly encouraged.
S25 Advances in Array Based Studies of Seismic Sources
Keith D. Koper, University of Utah, Utah 84016, USA,
Johannes Schweitzer, NORSAR, Norway,
Compared to a single seismometer, a seismic array provides enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and strong constraints on the direction of incoming seismic energy. Historically, these properties have made arrays useful for detecting and locating small seismic events, and seismic arrays are a critical component of the International Monitoring System that operates in support of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. In recent years, the number and density of seismic stations have increased and new applications of array seismology have emerged such as imaging the rupture properties of large earthquakes with back-projection. In this session, we invite presentations on new advances in array processing and the use of arrays to better understand all types of seismic sources, including tectonic earthquakes, induced earthquakes, landslides, explosions, and microseisms.
S26 Computational Seismology. Technical Implementations, Ethical Considerations
Christopher Dimech, SMRG, University of Malta,
Cristiana Sebu, Department of Mathematics, University of Malta
Sinan Mehmet Ozeren, Eurasia Institute of Earth Sciences, ITU
Several aspects of seismology, as well as our knowledge of the Earth, have advanced rapidly in recent years in parallel with advances in computational facilities and resources. This session aims to explore recent innovative developments in computational techniques, numerical solution of classical and new seismology problems, and the use of High Performance Computing. We invite submissions related, but not limited to numerical inversion problems in seismology big data and HPC full waveform inversion and its computational implications advances in wave propagation computations.

In this session we would also like to promote the use of Free Software. Most scientific endeavours operate as independent state, industrial or university units with little or no coordination between them. Seismology at all levels should use and teach the principles of Free Software (i.e., the values of freedom and cooperation and the principle of sharing) because it is the only way that fosters a community of goodwill, cooperation, and collaboration, not only for those actively working, but also for attracting new people. This session strongly encourages the free software philosophy and the following types of presentation:
  • Projects that integrate the distribution of datasets, software and documentation in their release;
  • Advances in the distribution of computational techniques beneficial to seismologists wishing to use, distribute, study, extend to do more jobs or adapt to new needs;
  • Discourses that detail functional computations of value to seismologists; Research investigating the effectiveness of computational resources.
S27 10 Years of SeisComP3
Joachim Saul and Winfried Hanka, GFZ Potsdam,
Bernd Weber and Dirk Rössler, gempa GmbH
John Clinton, SED, ETH Zuerich
Jean-Marie Saurel, IPGP
SeisComP3 is an open-source, end-to-end, seismological software package. It consists of modules that span data acquisition, re-distribution and archival, automatic event detection, characterization, and notification, as well as interactive analysis. Most functionality is available as C++ libraries together with Python wrappers. SeisComP3 supports FDSN standards like MiniSEED, StationXML, QuakeML and webservices and the transmission standard SeedLink. SeisComP3 was originally developed by GFZ Potsdam for the German-Indonesian Tsunami Warning System (GITEWS). It is now maintained and developed by GFZ Potsdam and gempa GmbH. Over the years, a vigorous user community has formed, who also contribute modules to SeisComP3 that compliment the existing framework, like tools for ShakeMaps or Earthquake Early Warning. Comprehensive documentation is provided online. User support is available via a web forum with currently more than 250 users from all over the world. SeisComP3 is used as the primary earthquake monitoring software by several dozens of networks monitoring local, regional and global seismicity across the globe. Primarily a solution for real-time monitoring and data distribution, it is increasingly being used to generate earthquake catalogues for off-line analysis, e.g. from temporary experiments. 10 years ago SeisComP3 was released as a public package. The anniversary is an opportunity to bring together users, developers and interested parties. In this session we invite contributions from all fields related to SeisComP3, including scientists using the software for data analysis and data centers using it for data handling and distribution. We also welcome contributions about possible challenges facing the SeisComP3 community, and discussion on further improvements.
S28 Applications and developments in ambient noise seismology
Andrea Cannata, Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia,
Flavio Cannavò, Osservatorio Etneo, INGV,
Raphaël De Plaen, Faculté des Sciences, Université du Luxembourg,
Anne Obermann, ETH,
In the absence of earthquakes and other strong seismic signals, the Earth surface is not static but constantly vibrating due to many continuous noise sources such as ocean waves, storms and anthropic activities, generating the so-called ambient seismic noise. Ambient seismic noise has proven to be a valuable tool for imaging the earth at different scales via surface and body wave tomographies. The continuity and reproducibility of ambient noise correlations, make them an excellent candidate for the monitoring of crustal properties, which has found applications ranging from volcano monitoring, dynamic recovery processes of earthquakes to civil engineering. The energy source for most applications is the microseism. The microseism sources are closely related to ocean wave energy coupling with the Earth’s motion and have today broad applications, among which the investigation on atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere-solid earth interactions, to make also inferences on climate changes. In this session, we welcome contributions focused on ambient noise seismology. We invite contributions concerning multi-scale applications of seismic noise interferometry, such as imaging structure and monitoring subsurface changes. We are also enthusiastic to receive studies on the sources of ambient seismic noise (i.e. microseisms, hum, microbaroms), their generation processes, and their applications on the investigation of atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere-solid earth interactions. This extends also to methodological and more theoretical approaches (i.e. role of scattering, alternative processing techniques).
S29 Advances in seismic site response and microzonation for improving the resilience of urban centers
Giovanna Laurenzano, INOGS, Italy,
Alessandro Pagliaroli, University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy,
Marco Pilz, Helmholtz Center Potsdam, Germany,
Giovanna Vessia, University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy,
Rajib Biswas, Tezpur University, India,
Nilutpal Bora, Tezpur University, India
Realistic and robust ground motion estimation for future earthquakes is one of the most challenging problems in seismology and earthquake engineering. In particular, the influence of the local site conditions has been shown to be particularly important for quantifying the level of ground motion. The differences, commonly up to 3 degrees of seismic intensity, that are detected at nearby sites (a few hundred of meters) are today recognized as the resultant of the seismic impedance contrasts among soil strata and the bedrock, buried basin or articulated geometries of the underground formations and the topographic effects combined with the seismic behavior of out-of-ground structures. These effects can strongly affect ground motion amplitude, duration and frequency content, producing highly-variable ground motion levels. The quantitative and reliable assessment of those phenomena is required for potential future events in a specific zone, for seismic hazard and seismic risk mitigation. Although site effects have been deeply studied over past decades, several scientific and engineering issues remain unsatisfactorily answered. An open issue is still debated that is how to represent the local seismic response by means of homogeneous areas for planning purposes named microzoning studies.

This session aims collecting contributions of recent advances regarding local site effects (basin resonance, topographic effects, nonlinearity, soil liquefaction, slope instability, scattering effects) and corresponding microzonation activities. Multi-disciplinary investigations, including a range of multi-hazard estimation of local amplification, slope instability or liquefaction phenomena and laboratory testing, are further encouraged. We also welcome contributions with a special focus of site effect studies for long-term urban planning, land planning and also for emergency management.
S30 From source to site: understanding and modelling high-frequency attenuation of earthquake ground motion.
Olga-Joan Ktenidou, Department of Engineering Science, University of Greenwich, UK,
Chris Van Houtte, GNS Science, New Zealand,
Benedikt Halldorsson, University of Iceland & Geoscience Research Group,
In this session, we would like to bring together the seismological and engineering communities to discuss high-frequency ground motion and its attenuation, as it may have significant impact on engineering design. Understanding and modelling ground motion at high frequencies is becoming an important issue in seismic hazard assessment and site-specific hazard, especially for critical facilities, where seismic response at 5-20 Hz may be crucial. Physics-based broadband simulations have been attempting to reach higher frequencies than ever before, while the empirical high-frequency attenuation factor kappa is gaining visibility. We welcome contributions related to modelling, be it physics-based or empirical, as well as spectral analysis studies and simulations that may shed light on the nature of high-frequency attenuation of earthquake ground motion, in particular parameter trade-offs and the relative contributions of source/path/site on high-frequency motions. Topics of interest include fmax, kappa, crustal attenuation, Q, site effects and the rock site characterisation. The origin and physical components of kappa and fmax are still objects of debate, as are the relative effects of damping and scattering. Finally, the effect of high-frequency attenuation and its uncertainty on ground motion models and their adjustment is a very pertinent and timely question, particularly for moderate-to-low seismicity regions. This session therefore also welcomes results and experiences from recent projects that dealt with such issues.
S31 New Techniques and Technologies in Earthquake Engineering
Aleksandra Bogdanovic, Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Skopje
Marta Stojmanovska,Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Skopje,
Recent seismic events emphasize the importance of introducing new technologies and techniques as a best solution for achieving substantially earthquake resistant structures. The experience has shown that high seismic performance cannot be expected from the conventionally designed and constructed buildings. Therefore, new technologies and techniques that provide dissipation of energy without structural damages are required in seismic prone regions.

The main purpose of the session is to bring together researchers with diverse backgrounds, academic staff, post-graduate students, professional engineers, who are interested in the behavior of objects and structures during earthquakes. The session will cover all aspects of up-to-date earthquake engineering such as
  1. new materials,
  2. structural control and health monitoring,
  3. experimental studies,
  4. soil structure interaction,
  5. laboratory and field testing
S32 Induced and triggered seismicity: observations, modelling, monitoring, discrimination and risk management strategies (Joint ESC / SSA)
Enrico Priolo, OGS, Italy,
Tony Alfredo Stabile, IMAA-CNR, Italy,
Simone Cesca, GFZ, Germany,
Leo Eisner, Seismik s.r.o., Czech Republic),
William Ellsworth, Stanford Univ., USA,
Kristine Pankow, University of Utah, USA,
Manfred Joswig, Stuttgart Univ., Germany,
Antonio Pio Rinaldi, ETH, Switzerland,
It is well known that industrial activities related to development and production of energy have the potential to induce minor seismicity or trigger larger earthquakes. This is a global phenomenon with implications for seismic hazard and risk, and real concern exists about larger earthquakes that might be triggered by industrial activities especially in densely populated areas. In addition to human-induced seismicity, there are also natural induced earthquakes that occur in response to naturally driven stress perturbations such as seismic waves, tidal stressing, and volcanic processes.

Public and regulatory concerns about the potential hazard from induced earthquakes continues to evolve in response to a deepening scientific understanding of the underlying mechanisms and improvements to probabilistic seismic hazard models. There is a growing understanding that taking steps to reduce the hazard can mitigate the risk. Consequently, guidelines for monitoring are being revised and improved.

This session focuses on theoretical, experimental and observational advances in understanding, detecting, discriminating the seismicity induced or triggered by hydrocarbon exploitation, mining, geothermal development and other industrial operations, as well as hazard management strategies for reducing the risk. Topics related to fluid induced and triggered seismicity in other research areas are also of interest.

We welcome contributions on advances in seismic and deformation monitoring; analysis and modelling of induced and triggered seismicity at different spatial and temporal scales; laboratory experiments; discrimination between natural, triggered and induced seismicity; multidisciplinary studies combining different data types and observations; assessment of seismic hazard and mitigation of the seismic risk in areas where such activities are carried out; existing regulations and new policy directions; and public perception and concern.

The session will be organized into two main subtopics: 1) observations, physical mechanisms and modelling; 2) monitoring, discrimination, and risk management strategies. Furthermore, the session will include some selected/invited presentations of 20 minutes net length, one of them assigned to a young researcher. Therefore, we particularly appreciate contributions from early career scientists.
S33 Advances in single station and array methods for subsurface characterization
Agostiny Marrios Lontsi, ETH Zurich,
Manuel Thomas Hobiger, ETH Zurich,
Cecile Cornou, ISTerre, France,
The use of ambient seismic noise has signi_cantly increased over the last decades. Controlled source signals are also widely used and can complement ambient noise measurements. Taking advantage of the large wavelength range of these signals, the subsurface structure can be investigated in a broad depth range from few meters to several hundreds of meters. The analysis of the subsurface structure of the Earth is a necessary step towards mitigating natural hazards such as earthquake, landslide, instable rock slopes, or non-linear site behavior such as liquefaction. However, the approach is not limited to the Earth's solid surface, but can also be applied in marine or lake environments, on the Lunar surface or, in the context of the forthcoming InSight mission, on Mars. We invite contributions that address single-station and/or array data modeling, processing and applications. Methods may range from:
  1. Single-station methods, e.g. microtremor horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio, ellipticity estimation, receiver functions, transfer functions;
  2. Array methods using single- or multi-component data processing (passive or active sources), e.g. frequency-wavenumber, spatial autocorelation, Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW), Interferometric-MASW;
  3. Any combination of (1) and (2) and innovative techniques.
Methods based on the Diffuse Wakefield approach or using cross-correlation techniques are also welcome, as well as any contribution concentrating on the inversion of any of the aforementioned methods on any depth-scale range.
S34 Developments in Strong Motion Seismology, a COSMOS Session
Robert Nigbor, COSMOS,
Jamison Steidl, COSMOS and University of California at Santa Barbara,
Alan Yong, U.S. Geological Survey,
The strong motion end of the seismological data spectrum continues to be primary for earthquake engineering and applied seismology. Availability and reliability of strong ground motion recordings continue to be important for mitigating seismic hazards. COSMOS, the Consortium of Organizations for Strong Motion Observation Systems, serves as a consortium through which international programs and institutions can address mutual problems with strong-motion measurements, data, and data dissemination. This COSMOS-organized session brings together a wide variety of topics on the advances and limitations of current state-of-art and -practice on monitoring and disseminating earthquake-induced ground motion data. Our purpose is to promote discussions that bridge the gap between operators of seismic networks and the researchers and applied practitioners of seismic hazards analyses. We encourage presentations on the state-of-the-practice and new developments in strong motion network operations and data utilization. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: instrumentation, station site characterization and metadata, data archiving, and data mining. After the selected presentations we will have an open discussion regarding the overall state of knowledge and priorities for advancing the state-of-art in strong motion seismology.
S35 Tsunamis in Europe and Worldwide: Observations, Theory and Numerical Analyses for Hazard and Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction
Andrey Babeyko GFZ
Stefano Lorito INGV
Öcal Necmioğlu KOERI
Gerassimos Papadopoulos NOA
Fabrizio Romano INGV
Alexander Rudloff GFZ
A surge of great earthquakes worldwide in the last fifteen years has caused a significant number of damaging tsunamis, some of which will be remembered among the worst natural disasters ever occurred. This has been a grave natural warning that tsunami risk should not be underestimated but, at the same time, these events offered a number of clues for a deeper understanding of tsunami generation, propagation and impact mechanisms. In response, the continuously growing interdisciplinary tsunami science community has put an unprecedented effort in: understanding tsunami physics, addressing tsunami hazard and risk, and contributing to tsunami risk reduction primarily through the development of regional and national tsunami warning systems, input to long-term coastal planning and public awareness raising. This session aims to gather tsunami scientists in the broad sense, and we encourage contributions on all the themes ranging from fundamental tsunami science, through case-studies worldwide, towards hazard- risk- and early warning methodologies. Contributions concerning tsunamis in Europe will be particularly welcome. Reports on the 2017 moderate tsunamis in Greece and Turkey as well as progress reports on NEAMTWS are also especially encouraged.
S36 Cultural Heritage and Earthquakes: case studies, issues and new challenges
Laura Pecchioli, Technical University of Berlin,
Valerio Poggi, GEM) Foundation, Pavia, Italy,
Francesco Panzera, University of Catania, Italy,
Giovanni Cangi, ITABC-CNR, Rome, Italy,
Historical sites, monuments and constructions of architectural importance are part of the world‘s cultural heritage and are of unquestionable value for our society. As with every element in the built environment, these are particularly vulnerable to extreme natural events such as earthquakes and their associated secondary effects (landslides, ground fractures, tsunamis). Recent earthquakes in Italy, Turkey and Greece (e.g. Umbria-Marche 1997, Izmit and Duzce 1999, Central Italy 2016, Kos 2017) have emphasized the increased need for mitigation actions to preserve the vast cultural and historic heritage from natural disasters. However, targeted measures are not sufficient, as it has been demonstrated, unless they are coordinated into common Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) policies. Moreover, to fully address the modality of the damaging process, a multidisciplinary approach involving complementary research fields is essential. For this session, we encourage original contributions from a wide range of topics that are common grounds of interest between engineering seismologists, earthquake engineers, architects, geologists and historians. In particular, we invite professional and early career scientists (students and Post Docs), who are engaged in the preservation of sites, buildings and monuments of cultural and historical heritage, to contribute with novel ideas and recent case studies. This might include, but is not limited to, the following areas:
  • Protection and conservation of monuments and archaeological sites;
  • Integration of archaeoseismology in Site Management (preservation in-situ, display of excavated sites), as a mean for establishing a local earthquake culture;
  • Advances in site-specific seismic hazard, including local response analysis and new geophysical techniques for site characterization;
  • Analysis of historical, pre-instrumental and archaeological records, by investigation of existing historical buildings and archaeological sites, to extend the seismic history of critical regions;
  • Methods, principles, norms and technologies for the seismic retrofit of ancient structures to mitigate the effect of future earthquakes;
  • Numerical modeling and simulation of ground motion and the damaging process;
  • Possible actions to be taken by architects and engineers prior to the occurrence of an earthquake as well as procedures post-earthquake (reconnaissance reports and damage assessment); modalities of intervention;
  • Case studies on urban hazard and risk studies for sites of scientific relevance.
In light of the value to our modern societies, it is our responsibility to preserve the existing cultural and built heritage using state-of-the art science, knowledge and information, and to limit the extent and severity of acceptable interventions.
S37 Open questions in (European) Historical earthquake research
Andrea Rovida, INGV, Milano,
Christa Hammerl, ZAMG – Zentralanstalt fuer Meteorologie und Geodynamik, Austria,
In the last decades the quality of historical earthquake research has improved dramatically. Nevertheless, there are still numerous aspects that should be worked out and faced. As such aspects have been of course frequently discussed, the session focusses on how do historical seismologists deal with any of the problems they encounter in their researches. In practice, intensity assessment for historical earthquakes sometimes still poses questions, such as how to deal with single intensity points, or with the intensity estimation of single earthquakes in a sequence. The conversion of the different macroseismic scales to the EMS-98 is another point of discussion and whether it has any impact on catalogues. An old question – but still a question – deals with the homogeneity of European earthquake catalogues. The interest of end-users in natural phenomena induced by past earthquakes (liquefaction, landslides, tsunamis) is increasing and, through the calibration of paleo- and historical earthquakes, it might represent the point of contact between Paleoseismology and Historical Seismology, which is another open question. Finally, a further calibrating approach for paelo- and/or historical earthquakes would be the use of ShakeMaps. Moreover, ShakeMaps may help in dealing with problems such as single intensity point events, outlier identification, etc. Contributions referring to all these topics, as well as to any related one, are welcome in accordance with the scope of the ESC Working Group 01-12 “Archive of historical earthquake data for the European-Mediterranean area”.
S38 Complexity measures of seismic catalogs and recordings
Conviners: Filippos Vallianatos: Technological Educational Institute of Crete,;
Luciano Telesca: Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, National Research Council, Italy,
Tamaz Chelidze:, M.Nodia Institute of Geophysics, , Georgia,;
Both major experimental seismic data bases– seismic catalogs and seismic recordings of Earth vibrations contain a plethora of important information that cannot be obtained by traditional statistical methods. Seismic catalogs contain both correlated and non-correlated component: only the former one is used in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). The correlated component is practically excluded from analysis, though it contains information on the time-dependence of seismic process, which is important for earthquake forecast. New tools of nonlinear dynamics reveal in both seismic catalogs and recordings many hidden time structures with different levels of ordering – from colored noise to chaos. It seems important to apply these tools to earthquake catalogs and recordings to reveal hidden nonlinear structures in seismic data bases, which can lead to significant progress in understanding complex seismic process.
S39 Knowledge Bases About Past Earthquakes Consequences
Nina Frolova, Seismological Center of IGE, RAS, Moscow, Russia,
Li Guoqing, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, CAS, Beijing, China
Robin Spence, Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd, London, UK
Virginia Murray, Public Health England, London, UK
The efforts to collect data on past earthquakes and other natural hazards consequences was primarily made by insurance and reinsurance companies, as well as some universities and individual scientists. Since 2000 Center for Research of Epidemiology of Disasters in Brussels maintain the international disaster database, including earthquakes. Still these data can’t be directly used for calibration of analytical loss models’ of the systems assigned for near real time loss computation. At present GEM and some other data bases which are under development may be used for these purposes. Such efforts are aimed at increasing the reliability of social and economic loss estimations just after the strong earthquake. The goal of inter-disciplinary session is to summarise different factors affecting on the reliability of near real time loss estimations and identify the way to minimize their ifluence. We are interested in contributions devoted to macroseismic datasets and information on engineering analysis of strong earthquake cosequences occured in diffrent countries. This applies to the whole range of topics, starting from database issues and set of guidelines for data collection, data base contents and formats, questionnaires and thumbnails, all the way to multi-hazard approach. The important aim of this session is to explore ways in which the datasets on earthquake consequences from different countries and institutions could possibly be merged, and to what extent these data should be harmonized, as well as to discuss different issues dealt with creation of distributed data base.
S40 Seismology and Society
Nicos Melis, NOA, Greece, citizen seismology
Remy Bossu, EMSC, France, citizen seismology
Silvia Peppoloni, INGV, Italy, geoethics
Giuseppe di Capua, INGV, Italy, geoethics
Iain Stewart, Plymouth, UK, geoethics
Graça Silveira, Lisbon, Portugal, educational seismology and civil protection
Susana Custódio, Lisbon Portugal, educational seismology and civil protection
Tataru Dragos ,INFP, Romania, educational seismology
Paul Denton, BGS, UK, educational seismology
This session aims to bring together seismologists working in the fields of educational seismology, citizen seismology and geoethics. The common theme being the process of communicating the science of seismology to non-specialists. Seismology has an important role to play in modern society and seismologists should be having two-way communications with a wide variety of stakeholders across all levels of society, encompassing schools, engineers, general public, other scientists, politicians and civil protection professionals. In educational seismology projects across the world practical studies of seismology can be used to enhance the scientific literacy not just within the school but also within the wider community through family interactions. Nowadays non-specialist citizens are becoming increasingly involved with the collection and dissemination of seismological information through a growing number of citizen seismology networks, maybe by reporting directly or indirectly felt effects or by instrument based programmes. This session aims to promote the discussion on social aspects involved in seismic risk communication and (geo)ethical implications. Improving the relationships between scientists, decision makers, and general public means to increase the resilience of the human communities, and to make seismologists more aware of the responsibility in conducting their activity.
S41 Earthquake risk perception, communication and mitigation strategies
Elena Dell’Agnese, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy,
Francesco De Pascale, University of Calabria, Italy,
Piero Farabollini, University of Camerino,
Francesca Romana Lugeri, ISPRA/University of Camerino,
Fausto Marincioni, Marche Polytechnic University, Italy; Long Island University, U.S.A.,
Francesco Muto, University of Calabria, Italy;
Risk and disasters are social constructs deriving from an unsustainable human-environment interaction. Earthquake hazard do not created damages and destruction; it is our vulnerability and exposure to such processes that creates the conditions of risk. There is nothing natural about an earthquake disaster, yet the common perception is that humans are victims of nature’s extreme events. Moreover, the ability of a society to respond to earthquakes does not depend primarily on the emergency conditions created by the impact, but rather on the pre-disaster settings and circumstances.

From the agricultural revolution onwards, humans have tried to free themselves from the control of nature by modeling the territory for his own benefit. This, on the one hand, has enabled the social development we enjoy today, yet, on the other, the interaction with natural processes we do not fully understand has created problems of exposure and vulnerability. The consequences went beyond the creation of risk conditions and caused profound changes in environmental cycles contributing to the current geographies of the Anthropocene.

Recent earthquakes, including those in Italy and Iran, have unequivocally shown the dominant role of societal vulnerability in creating those disasters. The Mediterranean region, unceasingly affected by strong earthquakes and almost all type of known natural hazards, is very representative of these complex and multi-scale dynamics.

From an examination of the dramatic events that have recently occurred in the central region of Italy, there emerges the need to provide the general public with correct and clear information on the complex scenario characterising this as well as another- country. Experience teaches us that tackling the subject of the prevention of risk and protection from danger (the avoidance of exposure) is very difficult. What is needed is a communicative strategy that informs the public of the characteristics of a territory (understood as a natural and cultural environment) and the relative operative dynamics, just as one should understand the anatomy and physiology of one's own body in order to manage and protect it in the best possible way.

The proposers encourage abstracts discussing the multiple dimensions of earthquake risk reduction, including, but not limiting to, the following research lines:
  • Risk communication and social perception;
  • Prevention and population preparedness;
  • Community based approach;
  • Adaptive capacity;
  • Representation of earthquakes in popular culture;
  • New technologies for investigations of hazards and risk;
  • Vulnerability reduction;
  • Disaster governance.
  • The conveners are considering the publication of a special volume in the book series “Geographies of the Anthropocene” (Il Sileno).
S42 General Seismology
Pauline Galea
Paivi Mantyniemi
This session is intended to cover any topic in seismology which may not be directly relevant to any of
the other sessions. We welcome contributions dealing with seismicity and seismotectonics of regions
in or outside the Euro-Mediterranean area, global and planetary seismology, novel ideas or
improvements to conventional methodologies, theoretical or applied aspects of seismology, etc.